“People have never been so aware of what their personal data is, and never cared so much about how it is used. The law is changing to reflect that. The EU data protection reforms promise to be the biggest shake up for consumers data protection rights for three decades. Organisations simply cannot afford to fall behind. We know data protection officers understand this, and we know they sometimes find their views ignored in the boardroom. The new law gives directors 20 million reasons to start listening.
Christopher Graham, The Information Commissioner March 2016.
In May 2018 the new EU General Data Protection Regulation comes into force affecting all organisations that hold data of EU citizens.
Irrespective of the UK’s decision to leave the EU this Law is applicable to UK organisations because not only do most hold some information of EU subjects but we will still be members of the EU when the law becomes enforceable.
One of the biggest changes is that everyone has to be accountable for the protection of data. The onus has moved from the individual having to prove there has been a leak of their data, to the controllers proving they have done everything in their powers to prevent a breach.
Other changes from the current UK directive are as follows:
Increased Territorial Scope (extra-territorial applicability)
Arguably the biggest change to the regulatory landscape of data privacy comes with the extended jurisdiction of the GDPR, as it applies to all companies processing the personal data of data subjects residing in the Union, regardless of the company’s location. Previously, territorial applicability of the directive was ambiguous.
Non-EU businesses processing the data of EU citizens will also have to appoint a representative in the EU.
Under GDPR organizations in breach of GDPR can be fined up to 4% of annual global turnover or 20 Million (whichever is greater). This is the maximum fine that can be imposed for the most serious infringements e.g. not having sufficient customer consent to process data or violating the core of Privacy by Design concepts. There is a tiered approach to fines e.g. a company can be fined 2% for not having their records in order (article 28), not notifying the supervising authority and data subject about a breach or not conducting impact assessment.
It is important to note that these rules apply to both controllers and processors meaning clouds will not be exempt from GDPR enforcement.
The conditions for consent have been strengthened, and companies will no longer be able to use long illegible terms and conditions full of legalese, as the request for consent must be given in an intelligible and easily accessible form, with the purpose for data processing attached to that consent. Consent must be clear and distinguishable from other matters and provided in an intelligible and easily accessible form, using clear and plain language. It must be as easy to withdraw consent as it is to give it.
Data Subject Rights:
Under the GDPR, breach notification will become mandatory in all member states where a data breach is likely to result in a risk for the rights and freedoms of individuals. This must be done within 72 hours of first having become aware of the breach. Data processors will also be required to notify their customers, the controllers, without undue delay after first becoming aware of a data breach.
Right to Access
Part of the expanded rights of data subjects outlined by the GDPR is the right for data subjects to obtain from the data controller confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning them is being processed, where and for what purpose. Further, the controller shall provide a copy of the personal data, free of charge, in an electronic format. This change is a dramatic shift to data transparency and empowerment of data subjects.
Right to be Forgotten
Also known as Data Erasure, the right to be forgotten entitles the data subject to have the data controller erase his/her personal data, cease further dissemination of the data, and potentially have third parties halt processing of the data. The conditions for erasure, as outlined in article 17, include the data no longer being relevant to original purposes for processing, or a data subjects withdrawing consent. It should also be noted that this right requires controllers to compare the subjects rights to the public interest in the availability of the data when considering such requests.
GDPR introduces data portability – the right for a data subject to receive the personal data concerning them, which they have previously provided in a commonly used and machine readable format and have the right to transmit that data to another controller.
Privacy by Design
Privacy by design as a concept has existed for years now, but it is only just becoming part of a legal requirement with the GDPR. At it’s core, privacy by design calls for the inclusion of data protection from the onset of the designing of systems, rather than an addition. More specifically The controller shall..implement appropriate technical and organisational measures..in an effective way.. in order to meet the requirements of this Regulation and protect the rights of data subjects. Article 23 calls for controllers to hold and process only the data absolutely necessary for the completion of its duties (data minimisation), as well as limiting the access to personal data to those needing to act out the processing.
Data Protection Officers
Currently, controllers are required to notify their data processing activities with local DPAs, which, for multinationals, can be a bureaucratic nightmare with most Member States having different notification requirements. Under GDPR it will not be necessary to submit notifications / registrations to each local DPA of data processing activities, nor will it be a requirement to notify / obtain approval for transfers based on the Model Contract Clauses (MCCs). Instead, there will be internal record keeping requirements, as further explained below, and DPO appointment will be mandatory only for those controllers and processors whose core activities consist of processing operations which require regular and systematic monitoring of data subjects on a large scale or of special categories of data or data relating to criminal convictions and offences. Importantly, the DPO:
– Must be appointed on the basis of professional qualities and, in particular, expert knowledge on data protection law and practices
– May be a staff member or an external service provider
– Contact details must be provided to the relevant DPA
– Must be provided with appropriate resources to carry out their tasks and maintain their expert knowledge
– Must report directly to the highest level of management
– Must not carry out any other tasks that could results in a conflict of interest.